Artificial intelligence has advanced more quickly than ever in recent years, thanks to a new generation of generative AI programs that produce art, films, comedy, fake news, and a wide range of conflicts. The technologies underlying this most recent set of tools have been in development for some time, but their public release, notably the introduction of a new chatbot made possible by OpenAI’s ChatGPT system (GPT short for Generative Pre-trained Transformer), marks a significant advance in artificial intelligence.
What is a Chatbot?
Chatbots have just lately established themselves as a standard method for customers to interact with businesses to ask questions, place orders, and do business. You might be shocked to know that chatbots have existed since the middle of the 1960s. The “Turing Test,” created by English computer scientist and pioneer Alan Turing in 1950, explored whether a computer program could converse or chat with a group of humans without the participants understanding that their interlocutor was artificial. This could be considered the birth of chatbot technology.
What are Chatbots used for?
Chatbots are used in dialogue systems for a variety of tasks, including information collecting, request routing, and customer service. While some chatbot solutions employ advanced natural language processing, word categorization, and AI, others only scan for broad keywords and construct responses using standard expressions taken from a connected library or database stored on the cloud.
Some Notable Chatbots
Microsoft released a bot named Tay in 2016. In August, Meta launched a modest push into the chatbot market with the introduction of BlenderBot 3. It is reported that the bot, like Tay, came under fire for spreading false information, such that Donald Trump won the 2020 presidential election, and for being racist and antisemitic.
OpenAI has built Moderation API, an AI-based moderation system that has been trained to assist developers in evaluating whether language violates the business’s content policy, which prevents harmful or unlawful content from being sent, in order to prevent these kinds of instances. OpenAI acknowledges that its moderation is imperfect and still has problems.
However, with its capacity to immediately respond to complex inquiries, the new AI tool ChatGPT has generated both enthusiasm and concern. People have discovered numerous ways it may simplify their life in a very short span after its release.
What is ChatGPT?
A chat-based application called ChatGPT was created by the research facility OpenAI to provide answers with a conversational style. ChatGPT can respond to follow-up inquiries, acknowledge mistakes, refute unfounded assumptions, and reject improper requests thanks to the dialogue style. The twin model of InstructGPT is trained to follow instructions in prompts and deliver thorough responses. It performs a variety of tasks, such as answering inquiries, resolving mathematical problems, writing messages, debugging and fixing code, translating across languages, producing text summaries, offering recommendations, classifying objects, and describing what something does, like a code block. In other words, it has a wide range of features that might make daily living simpler for many individuals.
Underlying Technology of ChatGPT
With 175B parameters, ChatGPT is based on the GPT-3.5 architecture. The GPT-3.5 series includes three models: text-davinci-002, trained by supervised fine-tuning on human-written demonstration and samples rated 7/7 by human labellers on overall quality scores, and the most recent text-davinci-003, an updated version that includes reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF), a reward-based model trained on comparisons by humans. Code-davinci-002 is the base model for code completion tasks. Text and code from before Q4 2021 make up the training data.
The supervised-learning model used by ChatGPT allows human AI trainers to create responses and train the model while acting as both the user and the AI helper. Then, based on the quality of the chatbot’s responses and the sampled alternative completions, the trainers assigned ratings to both. Even though ChatGPT output has been the subject of numerous user-reported errors, one of the more intriguing features of OpenAI’s model is that the GPT-3.5 design employs a reinforcement learning model (RLHF), a reward-based mechanism based on user feedback, making it continually improve.
An interesting fact to note is that Elon Musk stopped OpenAI from training ChatGPT using Twitter’s database as soon as he found out about it since OpenAI is no longer open-sourced and non-profit, and it should eventually be compensated for this expertise.
Training Method for ChatGPT
ChatGPT is a sibling model to InstructGPT, which follows instructions and prompts and provides detailed responses.
The primary strategy for training InstructGPT models is reinforcement learning from human input (RLHF). This technique employs human preferences as a reward signal to fine-tune the models. To train the OpenAI’s supervised learning baselines, developers first compile a dataset of human-written demonstrations on prompts sent to their API. Then, using a broader collection of API prompts, they gather a dataset of comparisons between two model outputs that have been human-labeled. Then, using this dataset to train a reward model (RM), they can determine which output their labelers will favour. Finally, they optimise their GPT-3 policy to maximise this reward using the Proximal PolicyOptimization algorithm by employing this RM as a reward function.
How to Use ChatGPT by OpenAI?
Users must register for an account on the OpenAI website in order to use ChatGPT. The email address and phone number of the user, along with the main reason they wish to utilize OpenAI, such as study, app development, or personal use, is required. Like a standard messaging app, the user can put in the search query in the text box and press Enter or can click the send button, which is represented by a paper aeroplane. It can take a while for the ChatGPT to respond, but when it does, the response will show up right under your inquiry. Users don’t need to type out complete sentences every time they have a follow-up inquiry because the model is designed for dialogue. The user and ChatGPT will be able to refer back to the conversation thread and ask any further questions. The users should press the Reset Thread button in the menu on the left if they want to start a new topic. Modifying a question by just one word can change ChatGPT’s response. Therefore, users must consider rephrasing the sentence if the model’s response to their inquiry doesn’t seem to be clear.
Use of Chat GPT-3 is possible on a number of platforms, including IBM Watson, Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, and Google Cloud Platform.
Evolution of ChatGPT 1, 2 and 3
2018 saw the debut of GPT-1 by OpenAI. This generative language model was able to learn huge range dependencies and gain extensive knowledge on a diverse corpus of contiguous text and long stretches after being trained on the big BooksCorpus dataset. GPT-1 uses a self-attention method for training together with a 12-layer transformer decoder as part of its architecture.
In order to create a stronger language model later in 2019, OpenAI created a Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 2 (GPT-2) using a larger dataset and more parameters. GPT-2 uses the transformer model’s decoder, just like GPT-1. The model architecture and implementation of GPT-2 are some of the key advancements. With 1.5 billion parameters, it has 10 times the size of GPT-1 (117 million parameters), and it has 10 times as many parameters and data. By using only the raw text as input and taking little to no training examples, it is powerful in terms of resolving numerous language issues linked to translation, summarization, etc.
The most recent iteration of the Generative Pre-Training Model is GPT-3. GPT-3 eventually emerged as OpenAI’s ground-breaking AI language programme. Simply said, it is a piece of software that can create answers and solutions to queries on its own that are so distinctive they nearly sound like they were written by a human.
What makes ChatGPT special?
ChatGPT differs from its predecessors in part because of its emphasis on limiting potentially damaging content. The model is meant to be taught to reject improper requests.
For instance, Chat GPT would refuse to respond if you asked it the best technique to abuse someone online and would instead go on to describe why bullying in general is unacceptable.
Advantages of ChatGPT
- By automatically creating precise solutions to customer inquiries and doing it swiftly and effectively, ChatGPT can help you save time and effort.
- Compared to conventional chatbots, it can provide more organic dialogues, giving users a more realistic experience.
- ChatGPT can be used to automatically summarise discussions for further study and reference.
- To make things like booking appointments or making purchases simpler, ChatGPT can be coupled with other services like calendars, payment processors, and databases.
Limitations of ChatGPT
All chatbots come with some limitations, and ChatGP is not different from them.
- While safeguards are in place, ChatGPT makes it clear on its introductory page that the system may occasionally create inaccurate or misleading information as well as offensive or prejudiced comments. It is not meant to serve as advice.
- ChatGPT is unable to determine if the information is true or false. However, it is still a work in progress, as the developers have stated.
- Additionally, there is a limit to how much information ChatGPT can save, despite the fact that it can recall what the user stated previously in the chat. The current model does not save information beyond approximately 3000 words (or 4000 tokens).
- Limited knowledge of the world and events after 2021.
ChatGPT is an intriguing AI tool that, among other things, can generate innovative ideas, clarify complex ideas, and provide us with quick answers to our most pressing issues. You can find the information you’re looking for considerably more quickly by asking follow-up inquiries as opposed to visiting multiple different places on the internet.
That does not imply that ChatGPT is faultless, though. Even today, ChatGPT has the potential to give damaging advice and inaccurate information. OpenAI is conducting this research with the aim of gathering user input to help it become better in the future. To be clear, ChatGPT cannot completely replace independent research because it cannot distinguish between reality and fiction. However, there are a number of ways ChatGPT might simplify your life that has been developed by those seeking the advantages of AI.
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